Methods of cooking
Cooking, as mentioned earlier, is the process of making food edible, appetizing, appealing and digestible; these can be achieved by adopting various methods of cooking, Strictly speaking , the method of cooking depend on three basic principles of cooking and three principles of transferring heat as mentioned below :
What are the three basic principles of Cooking ?
- Cooking with water (or steam).
- Cooking Dry.
- Cooking with Fat.
What are the three principles of Transferring Heat ?
What are the 10 cooking methods ?
The 10 cooking methods are :-
Boiling is a process of cooking where prepared foods are heated at a temperature above 100 degree centigrade with water or court bouillion ( a liquid made usually with water , white wine, vegetables and seasonings and used to poach fish) or milk or stock.
What are the methods of boiling ?
▢ Liquid is boiled in the first place and food material is added thereafter.
▢ Liquid and food material are heated together.
Advantages of Boiling
▢ It is simple method of cookery and it is nutritious.
▢ Tougher joints of meat and poultry can be made palatable and digestable.
▢ It is appropriate for large scale cookery, labour saving and is economical on fuel.
▢ Because of presence of water, there are remote chance of food being burnt.
Steaming is cooking of foods by steam (moist heat) under varying degree of pressure.
▢ Low pressure steaming.
▢ High pressure steaming.
What are the Advantages of Steaming?
▢ Retention of nutritional value .
▢ Food is lighter and digestible
▢ Retention of flavour and colour.
Stewing is a slow method of cooking of food cut into pieces and in a minimum amount of liquid ( water/stock/sauce). Unlike boiling , less liquid is used in stewing and, the cooking temperature is maintained lower than boiling.
What are the advantages of Stewing ?
▢ The meat juice are retained in the liquid which is part of the stew.
▢ Slow cooking results in very little evaporation.
▢ Nutrients are conserved.
▢ Tough foods are tenderised.
- Baking :-
( Baking is the cooking of food by dry heat in an oven by circulation of hot dry air ).
Techniques Associated with Baking :
▢ Marking : Trays and tins are marked with sharp blade to indicate portions prior to baking. Marking may be for decorations.
▢ Greasing : Trays and tins are usually greased.
▢ Brushing : This may occur before , during or after baking
Before – Egg wash on pastry.
During – Milk wash on bread rolls.
After – Sugar wash on buns .
▢ Cooling : Placing of baked goods on wire grids or rack for air circulation.
▢ Recovery time : This is the time required for the oven temperature to reach the correct level before cooking each batch of food.
▢ Dusting : Light sprinkling of flour,
- Braising :
Braising is a method of cooking where food is first roasted and than-after stewed. In other words, it is a combination of pot roasting and stewing. The pan is used is casserole or cocotte.
There are mainly 2 types of Braising :
▢ Brown braising : for cuts of meats and joints.
▢ White braising : For vegetables and sweet breads.
- Frying :
( Frying is a method of cooking when food is cooked in hot oil or fat. There are mainly three types of frying ):
▢ Saute : It’s a type of frying , where food is just tossed or stirred now and then with little fat or oil. e.g. onion, capiscum, garlic and ginger.
▢ Shallow fat frying : Frying in a pan without dipping in oil- as in omllets and parathas.
▢ Deep fat frying : Cooking food in a pre-heated oil or fat by immersing the food fully in oil, as finger chips.
Broiling is a dry method of cooking by direct exposure of radiant heat. Generally, no fat or moisture in used, However we come across the term broiling in conjunctions with grilling. In fact, these are quite similar. In a pan broiling, the food is cooked uncovered on hot grill or using a saute. The grill/ saute used is oiled sometimes to prevent the food from sticking . e.g Steaks are broiling.
- Roasting :
Roasting is a cooking in a dry heat with the aid of fat or oil in an oven on a spit (a slender pointed rod for holding meat over a fire.) Radiant heat is the means of cooking where using a spit. Oven roasting is a combinations of convection and radiation.
- Grilling :
It is a method of cooking over heat, under the heat and between heats
- Poaching :
Poaching is the cooking of food in a required amount of liquid at just below its boiling point. There are two ways of poaching;
▢ Shallow Poaching : Cuts of fish or chickens are cooked in the minimum liquid that is water, stock, milk or wine. The liquid should never be allowed to boil but to simmer.
▢ Deep Poaching : Here the quantity of poaching liquid is more.